Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Is Socrates Guilty as Charged free essay sample

The new accusers, Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon have accused Socrates of corrupting the youth of Athens. This was a sad attempt by the government to avoid conflict. The government was scared that the youth would realize that we are not virtuous. The government is not virtuous, but they try to keep it quiet instead of looking for a new way to find the answers, as Socrates did. Socrates was trying to figure out what virtue is and instill it in the youth. Meno informed us of that. Meno had a conversation with Socrates about the definition of virtue. Socrates said that he never met anyone who could define virtue, but was challenging Meno to come up with the definition. He also challenged Meno to leave his Sophist’s teacher’s views out of it. He wanted to hear Meno’s own words. Socrates wasn’t going to give up, in the pursuit of, the true explanation of virtue. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Socrates Guilty as Charged? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Meno had several definitions of virtue that were close to being right but were a little bit off. These answers didn’t cut it for Socrates, and nothing but the truth would satisfy him. Socrates was on a mission to find the truth, but the government was afraid of the truth. Socrates asked questions, which people didn’t like. It makes them nervous, especially when they have something to hide. Obviously, Meletus, Anytus, and Lycon have something to hide. They know that the youth of Athens are very persuadable, and Socrates is teaching youth to think for themselves. They are afraid of the new generation of thinking for themselves and starting a revolution against the government. I think a revolution was exactly what the government needed. The men had politics in their blood and sometimes it blinded them. They said Socrates is the only one corrupting the youth of Athens. This can’t be true. Many of the youth were corrupted and not only one person could affect them all. There is no way Socrates’ teaching corrupted every dishonest youth in Athens. There are many other corrupting influences. Socrates said that if he did corrupt the youth he did unintentionally. If this was true, which I believe was, he would not need to be brought into court for a conviction and sentence. He would have only needed to be made aware of what he was doing wrong by the government. Socrates is looking out for the youth. He was helping them by educating them. The accusers weren’t doing anything to help the youth. Euthyphro was convicting his own father of murder. What kind of world was it that they were living in? Socrates is trying to better the world through education. He did this in the use of his Socratic method in which he would challenge his students question after question. The purpose was to expose contradictions in the student’s thoughts and ideas to then guide them to arrive at a solid, acceptable conclusion. The Sophists were educating as well, but not like Socrates. The Sophists were only teaching to give bold and grand answers. They do not teach to ask questions or to dig deeper. They were telling the youth to distract people with their big words and long, drawn out responses. This was the art of politics. Socrates’ way of educating the youth was magnificent. He taught them to use simple definitions and give precise answers that any citizen could understand. Once again, he strives for truth, which could never result in corruption. If Socrates had corrupted a young man, or numerous young men, and they grew up to realize they had been corrupted by Socrates, they would have come forward to the courts by now to accuse him themselves. Even if they couldn’t find the courage to do it themselves, their fathers, brothers, or other relations would have come forward. The lack of convictions that had been brought up by Socrates’ students and former students proves that what he was teaching them wasn’t corrupt. Socrates was a wise man. He had witnesses to prove it. The Oracle at Delphi said that Socrates is the wisest man in all of Athens. Most men would hear this statement and run with it, but Socrates is a humble man. He didn’t believe this information at first and even stated, â€Å"I am very conscious that I am not wise at all. He went out into Athens and questioned so-called â€Å"wise† men. He did this to prove the oracle wrong, but he ended up finding that he is the wisest of them all. This is because he didn’t believe he was wise, which is what makes him wise. Many men think they are wise which blinds them. They can’t see the truth. The fact that Socrates didn†™t believe he is wise makes him a good and humble man. Good and humble men don’t corrupt the youth or perform impious acts. When Socrates realized that people didn’t like him or his teachings, he was sorrowed and alarmed. These feelings revealed the truth in that all he was trying to accomplish was overall help Athens through education. Socrates old accusers, such as Aristophanes, are charging Socrates with studying things in the sky and beneath the earth. They don’t like that Socrates is questioning the nature of things. They think that he is invading the turf of the gods. How can the old accusers convict him for invading the turf of the gods when he said himself that he is in service of the gods? There had been multiple signs given to him to tell him to do this work such as oracles, dreams, and communication between the divine and mortals. The accusers can’t deny the evidence. Socrates believed in the gods. The old accusers are on the gods’ side and Socrates is working for the gods, so they should be praising him for doing the work of the gods they honor. He was studying things in the sky and beneath the earth because that is where gods come from. The gods obviously didn’t punish Socrates for doing his work, so how can Socrates be bad? The old accusers were trying to do the work of the gods by convicting him, but they were really ignoring the gods’ signs that he is in their service. I think that many of the accusers misinterpreted Socrates’ work. What Socrates was doing was unlike anyone else’s and the new ideas scared them. They are worried he is going to become the person in power and try to overthrow them, but they are wrong. They viewed him as a threat. Since Socrates had never been involved in public affairs or politics before, they thought he is against the government. He also intimidates them because he has power, but he wasn’t a member of the government which is unheard of at the time. Every man who has power and influence was either involved in politics, or is a friend of the government. His students and friends are so committed to him that the accusers think he might be building up a small army. Socrates is just trying to help Athens. This is all that he cared about. I will say it again, I think Socrates is a good man. He had never profited financially from his services. He didn’t charge a fee for his advice and he had so many witnesses that will admit that. He lived in poverty because he cared so much for Athens. His divine mission, given to him by the gods, was to philosophize, so that is what he did. Who is he to go against the gods? Socrates is a citizen of Athens, and he loved Athens and its gods. I think that in itself that should have been enough to save him from conviction. Socrates was a great man and seen as a great teacher. Some men within the government, namely, the old and new accusers, are threatened by him. They created these convictions in their heads in order to get rid of him, but I don’t think it was right. Socrates shouldn’t be convicted or sentenced to punishment because Socrates has done more good for Athens than anyone else. To sentence him to death was a very tragic loss.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Invariable French Adjectives

Invariable French Adjectives In French, adjectives normally have to agree with the nouns they modify in gender and number. However, there are numerous adjectives which dont agree - they have a single form that does not change to reflect the gender or number of the noun. These are called invariable adjectives. Invariable Color Adjectives French color adjectives derived from nouns, such as animals, flowers, fruits, gems, and metals, are usually invariable:amarante  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  amaranthine (dark purple-red)ardoise  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  slate-greyargent  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  silveraubergine  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  eggplantauburn  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  auburnbrique  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  brick-redcanari  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  canary yellowcaramel  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  caramel-coloredcarmin  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  carminecerise  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  cherry redchair  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  flesh-coloredchampagne  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  champagnechocolat  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  chocolate-browncitron  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  lemon-yellowcrà ¨me  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  cream-coloredemeraude  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  emerald greengrenat  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  garnetindigo  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  indigokaki  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  khakilavande  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  lavenderlilas  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  lilacmarine  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  navy bluemarron  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  brownnoisette  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  hazelocr e  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ochreolive  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  olive-greenor  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  goldorange  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  orangepastel  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  pastelpervenche  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  periwinklepie  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  (magpie) - piebald, black and whitepistache  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  pistachio-greenplatine  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  platinumprune  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  plumpuce  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  (flea) - pucerouille  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  rust-coloredrubis  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ruby redsable  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  sandy, sand-coloredsafran  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  saffron-coloredsaphir  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  sapphire-bluesaumon  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  salmon-pinktabac  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  tobacco brownturquoise  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  turquoisevermillon  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  vermilionExceptions:   alezan (chestnut), fauve (tawny/fawn), incarnat (rosy), mauve, pourpre (crimson), rose (pink), vermeil (vermillion),and violet are variable according to the normal rules of agreement  chà ¢tain (chestnut brown) is semi-invariable - it usually agrees in number, but rarely in gender Multiple Colors When two or more colors describe a noun, they may or may not agree:1) If there are items of each individual color, the adjectives agree:   des drapeaux bleus, blancs, rouges - red, white, and blue flags (some are red, some are white, and some are blue)des chapeaux rouges et noirs - red and black hats (some are red and some are black) 2) If each item has all of the colors, the adjectives are invariable des drapeaux bleu, blanc, rouge - red, white, and blue flags (e.g., French flags)des chapeaux rouge et noir - red and black hats This is one instance where agreement is useful, because it gives you more detail than what is available in the English translation. Compound Colors When adjectives of color are modified by another adjective or a noun, the adjectives are invariable:une jupe gris clair  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  light gray skirtdes gants violet foncà ©Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  dark purple glovesune couleur rouge-orange  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  reddish-orange colordes yeux bleu-vert  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  blue-green eyesune voiture vert pomme  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  apple-green cardes fleurs rouge tomate  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  tomato-red flowers Adjectives Borrowed From Other Languages French adjectives borrowed from other languages are usually invariable:ad hoc  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ad hoca priori  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a prioriantitrust  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  anti-trustbaby  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  babybeat  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  beatnikcantilever  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  cantilevercharter  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  chartercheap  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  cheap  (poor quality)clean  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  cleancool  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  coolcurriculum vitae  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  curriculum vitae, rà ©sumà ©dance  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  related to dance musicdesign  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  designerdestroy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  destroyed, trashed, wildexpress  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  related to espressofahrenheit  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Fahrenheitfree-lance  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  freelancefun  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  funfunky  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  funkfurax  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  furiousglamour  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  glamorousgold  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  gold(en)gore  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  gorygratis  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  freegroggy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  groggyhalal  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  halal  (in accordance with sharia principles)hi-fi  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  hi-fihigh-tech  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  high-techhot  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  hot (jazz)kascher  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  kosher (in accordance with Judaic principles)kitsch  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  kitschindoor  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  indoorinuit  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Inuitjazzy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  jazz, related to jazzkif-kif  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  same, identicalkitsch  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  kitschlambda  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  averge, typicallight  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  light, low in caloriesmarengo  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Marengooffset  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  offsetoffshore  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  offshoreout  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  out  of touch, (tennis) outpeople  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  celebritypop  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  pop  (music, art)pro forma  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  pro formapunk  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  punkrecord  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  recordrelax  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  relaxed, informal, laid backrevolving  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  revolvingselect  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  select, high-clas s, poshsexy  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  sexysnob  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  snobby, snobbishsolo  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  solosoul  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  soul  (music)sport  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  casual, athletic (clothes, shoes)spot  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  (economics) spotstandard  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  standardstand-by  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  stand-bysterling  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  (pound) sterlingtango  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  bright orangetop  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  great, besttrash  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  trashy, base, tastelessvaudou  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  voodoovidà ©o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  videowaterproof  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  waterproofzen  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Zen

Thursday, February 20, 2020

D2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

D2 - Essay Example If the organisation does not weigh the pros and cons of change, then it ends up with serious issues in hand (Chiefele, 2012). There are various cases where the short sightedness of the management has led to serious complications. Such complications act like poison pills. The present research report presents a case study of an organisational change and evaluates it using the â€Å"Appreciative Inquiry 5D framework†. 2. Definition D2 is a French car components manufacturing company that is contemplating to shut down the production plant at Didcot in UK and shift the operational base to France. On being informed by the management the employees of the both the plants will display signs of discomfort and discontent. The discontent among the employees at the plant in France is considerably low in comparison to UK. This is due to the reason that the employees at the UK plant were expecting that the management will declare plans for large investment. Due to this the employees started expecting that the management has definite future plan for them. So the news of closure of the plant will get them by surprise. The discontent would not have reached such levels had the management decided to come up with back up plans for the laid off employees (Lindheim and Swartout, 2003). This affected trust and dependability that the employees shared with the management. ... The decision to shut off the production plant at UK came with the intent to cut down the unproductive expenses. The aim to shift the operational base to Blios in France is part of a larger plan to utilise the advanced manufacturing facility there. The other aim is to increase the production in Blios and achieve economy of scale. UK production plant happened to be the base of the product development for quite some time and it helped the company stride through the years of recession. Some of the best minds are engaged in the developments of the production at the UK base. So the management decided to shift the product development engineers back to France. It must be noted that the decision to shift and provide employment to a selected group of employees is a serious instance of favouritism or bias (Mallon and Webb, 2006). This is also one of the reasons that will aggravate the employees at UK. The product development engineers are reluctant to go to France. This may be due to various re asons but more importantly the change in place and weather and working will put them in difficulty. Till now the whole problem is discussed from the point of view of the UK employees. The levels of dissatisfaction and discontent may not be severe among the employees of production plants at Spain and France but the employees were also feeling jittery. This is mainly due to the unexpected changes that will be declared by the management (Meyer, 2000). The decisions taken on the organisational level involves paradigm shift in the whole organisation of D2. Most of the decision looks very mechanistic in nature. The mechanistic natures of the changes are not suitable for the overall development of the organisation (Moessinger, 2007). This is because of

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

(Government) Towns and Township Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

(Government) Towns and Township - Essay Example rchase Information for South Carolina, Motor Fuel online Filing System, Check Out eSales, Electronic Payment System and South Carolina Withholding Reconciliation Tax Return. The collective performance of these departments makes South Carolina Department of Revenue a successful organization (Welcome to the South Carolina Department of Revenue, n.d). South Carolina Business One Stop is an online business portal that aids businessmen through the state. South Carolina Business One Stop offers businessmen a portal between the businesses and the government. This online web portal allows people to apply and pay for licenses online, registrations, permits and other official filings. A few of the services the organization provides is to establish business entity with secretary of state, registration for corporate taxes, submit filings to inform secretary of state about changes, apply for renewal of alcohol beverage license and applying for renewal of department of consumer affairs (SCBOS, n.d.). South Carolina Department of Revenue is responsible for collection of Use Tax. Use Tax is the tax which is imposed on purchase of items made outside of South Carolina. The USE TAX is paid to South Carolina Department of Revenue. The items on which USE TAX is applicable are items purchased on mail order, catalogs, and shopping networks and on any items bought on the internet. Online items which are bought include books, electronic, clothing and jewelry (All About Use Tax, n.d). South Carolina Department of Revenue has an electronic sales taxing system which has been made to make taxpayers a fast, free, electronic and secure way to submit taxes and revenues. This online electrical system gives people an option to make payments online without the need to leave your homes (What is the Sales and Use Tax System, n.d). Another online forum working to collect tax is â€Å"South Carolina Department of Revenue Electronic Withholding System† is made specifically to provide the individuals

Monday, January 27, 2020

A Criticism Of Incompatibilism

A Criticism Of Incompatibilism In Van Inwagens paper, An Argument of Incompatibilism, he posits in his consequence argument that, under determinism, there is no moral consequence of intentional actions. It is hard to think that one can act without free will. We seem to be able to make our own choices in life every step of the way, yet we are still exceedingly aware of situations and even decision that we seem to have no control over. This is the issue philosophers often encounter in the study of free will in our causally determined world. The subject of free will has been a matter of intense debate in the philosophical community for ages. Not surprising, seeing as its very concept has profound implications on metaphysical, deontological and moral grounds; the absence of free will puts into question the existence of moral responsibility, free thought and even our own existence. However, the compatibilists think that there are certain flaws in some of the premises of Inwagens argument that make it unreliable. David Lewis points out that two of the premises in Peter Van Inwagens Consequence Argument do not support it being viewed completely in the strong or weak sense of determinism. Incompatibilists such as Inwagen have trouble with the idea of determinism, or at least in the context of free will. Determinism is the view that there is a predetermined future that is created by events in the past while being governed by the laws of nature (Van Inwagen, 1983). A common example of determinism is the predestination paradox of time travel. What you do in the past affects what happens in the future, but unfortunately the future stays the same no matter whatever you try to do because you would still have caused the future regardless. When you apply determinism to something like intentional actions, it means that what youve done could have been predetermined to happen due to something having happened in the past. In the context of the free will debate, compatibilists subscribe to this very concept of determinism. This philosophical viewpoint is commonly brought up in free will related arguments. A reason for this is that that the idea of a causally determined future is d istressing when applied in the context of free actions. That is to say, that because everything is predetermined, there is technically no free will; whichever actions one believes they are doing is in fact simply an illusion. In his paper, Van Inwagen outlines seven propositions, which encompasses the Consequence Argument that argues against that fact. His argument seeks to remove determinism from the arguments of freewill due to the fact that it is deemed incompatible. In his Consequence Argument, Van Inwagen uses an example of a governor choosing not to raise their hand and influence the process of the final deliberation of a criminals death sentence. In this argument, he outlines the conditions that would have governed free will in a deterministic world in the form of six premises. In the Consequence Arguments first three premises, the argument outlines that intentional human actions are causally necessitated because they all happen within the natural, causally determined, world (Zimmerman, 2010). That is to say, the actions are determined to happen. The argument then goes on to outline the notion that if an event is necessitated by prior events, it could not have happened other than the way it actually happens (Zimmerman, 2010). This follows that because of the previous propositions, human actions cannot happen in any other way than what has already happened. For instance, following the arguments logic, I could only open a door ajar when I chose to do so because I was causally determined to do so. Finally, Inwagens Consequence Argument finally goes onto the topic of free will; a person can only be considered free if he can actually do otherwise on an action. Unfortunately, as stated before, any action a person does happens because it could not be done otherwise. Ultimately, following this line of reasoning, the person cannot do otherwise and is thus following the illusion of free will as he performs his seemingly intentional actions. Now, returning to the Inwagens example of the governor, we see what implications Inwagens argument has on this proposed scenario. By the logic of the Consequence Argument detailed earlier, the governor, despite having chosen to refrain from raising their hand, is not performing the action under their free will. In fact, according to the Consequence Argument, if determinism is true than there is no free will involved in the governors action. This has some severe implications on that particular subject. What it means is that since free will is not involved in his performing an action that would ultimately be responsible for sending a man to his death, the governor cannot be held morally responsible for that act. Hence, by this logic, the absence of free means one could not possibly be held morally responsible for anything they do. This certainly sounds like an outrageous, yet distressing, conclusion. How could there be any form of responsibility, or any rational thought even, in a dete rministic world when every action is seemingly predetermined? It is with this thought in mind that Van Inwagen argues that free will and, by extension moral responsibility, has no place in the deterministic world. So does this mean we can safely remove the possibility of free will in determinism? The compatibilists say otherwise. David Lewis, a compatibilist himself, has an interesting critique of Inwagens argument. In his paper, Are We Free to Break the Laws?, he argues that there are ways responsibility-grounding freedom of action (Zimmerman, 2010) can exist alongside determinism. Compatibilism is the view that free will does have a role together with determinism, specifically soft determinism. In his paper, he divides determinism into two different categories, hard and soft determinism. Hard determinism is defined, as a sort of determinism in where there seems to be no room for free will. Soft determinism, on the other hand, is the belief of the exact opposite, allowing for free will in the deterministic world. Lewis himself is a soft compatibilist. In Are we free to break the laws? he argues that there is a flaw in the consequence argument. Lewis admits that [he is] able to do something su ch that, if [he does] it, a [causal law will] be broken (Lewis, 1981), although he claims that the incompatibilists behind the Consequence Argument takes this claim to the extreme or what he calls the strong sense. To an incompatibilists, this statement can be taken to mean that he can break the very laws of nature (Lewis, 1981). These are the definition of the weak and strong theses. The difference between the two is that the weak thesis, which says that a [causal law will] be broken (Lewis, 1981) implies that whenever he decides to take an action, the act itself is what causes a law to be broken. A nice analogy of the weak thesis can be summed up with a simple rock thrown at a window. If someone throws a stone and in the process breaks a window, then, following the logic of the weak thesis, the act of throwing the stone is what ends up breaking the window. On the other hand, the strong thesis suggests the very act of performing an action means that he himself has broken the law. U sing the same example from before, instead of the act of throwing the stone, it is the thrower himself who breaks the window. Lewis outlines an important distinction between two different ways of viewing the premises of Van Inwagens Consequence Argument. The difference between the strong and weak theses plays an important part in Lewis argument. Lewis rejects the strong thesis that the Consequence Argument seems to imply but accepts the weak one. From the weak thesis he posits that one can actually do otherwise in the Consequence Arguments presumably unyielding deterministic actions. Lewis introduces a concept, which he calls a divergence miracle, since breaking a causal law requires nothing short of one. A divergence miracle is a divergence in the causal history that occurs before the act is performed. That is to say, that prior history may have been changed had the governor from Van Inwagens example raised his hand. Although, thats not to say that this would not be the case had the person simply chose not to have done so, Lewis claims that a miracle might have taken place, only to have its work undone by a second miracle (Lewis, 1981). This is where the weak thesis plays a significant role. Lewis states that for him to perform an a ction that would result in the breaking of a law, a divergence miracle independent of his own actions offers an alternate causal history that would allow the lawbreaking action to be possible. Lewiss paper draws attention to two premises from Inwagens Consequence Argument, most specifically the fifth and sixth premise. In Inwagens sixth premise, he states that a person could not have rendered a law of nature false (Van Inwagen, 1983). Lewis cites an example, which Van Inwagen has used in defense of this premise, of the possibility of the construction of an apparatus that can potentially violate the laws of physics. It follows that, following the rough outline of the sixth premise, if it is possible such an apparatus can be made then the laws of physics have certainly been rendered false (Van Inwagen, 1983). However, according to Lewis, while this proposition can be rejected, on the grounds that we have no choice what the laws of nature are (Van Inwagen, 1983), and in turn support viewing it from the strong sense. That is to say we cannot break the laws of nature. However, this defense is not suitable when being viewed from the perspective of the weak thesis. Inwagens sixth premise has an opposite effect. In defense of his fifth premise, he says that there is no way he can render false a conjunction that the Spanish being defeated in the past with the proposition that he will never visit Alaska (Van Inwagen, 1983). Inwagen believes that the reason one cannot render that false is that any deviation from actual events would be incompatible with any past state of the world taken with the laws of nature (Van Inwagen, 1983). Lewis counters this argument by saying it is completely irrelevant due to the fact that the claim of ones inability to render those false is only true in the sense of the weak thesis, but it completely neglects the strong thesis. The problem with these premises, according to Lewis, is that the arguments that Inwagen uses to support these premises are not sounds, seeing as neither of them addresses the Weak and Strong Theses. Generally the problem with the Consequence Argument, according to Lewis, is that it is not consistent in its premises. As outlined earlier, Inwagens fifth and sixth premises cannot both be viewed according to either the Strong or Weak Theses alone. This has the effect of weakening Inwagens argument, since it lessens the severity of the deterministic viewpoint; the inconsistency in views shows that that part of the argument seems unsound. In addition, Lewiss concept of divergence miracles also offers some welcome changes to the determinism that Inwagens Consequence Argument paints less rigid and unyielding. Such inconsistencies ultimately undermines what would normally be a rather solid argument convincing us of what would seem to be a no space for free will alongside determinism. Peter Van Inwagens Consequence Argument is seemingly unsound given that the argument does not hold up completely well when viewed from the Strong or Weak Theses that David Lewis had outlined. Incompatibilists have produced a fairly strong, if disturbing, argument of the potential link between determinism and free will. However, the viewpoints that result from the rejection of compatibilism, such as hard Incompatibilism and libertarian incompatiblism, seem far more alarming. One either outright rejects free will while the other posits that the world is not complete causally determined. Compatibilism on the other hand seems easier to accept.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Educational Psychology - Teacher Interview :: essays research papers

Educational Psychology - Teacher Interview I interviewed a teacher from the Philadelphia School District and here is the result from my interview. I am a teacher in the head start program of Philadelphia .I have been with the head start program for 10yrs. I see children younger than kindergarteners with special needs. I see this problem not only with education but behavioral. Children with special problems can learn. You have to know how to deal with children period. Regular children and special educational children all learn. Special educational children know exactly what they’re doing just as well as regular children.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The teachers involvement with the process is the teachers observes the children than fills out an application or suggest that this student needs some type of help if its with speech, or any other problem.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In head start we have physiologist who get children mental health together and evaluate the children. They do a test and it is evaluated with staff and parents or guardian of the child. We are involved in the Early Invention Programs. This program is even for younger children with behavioral problems and we get help from a supportive staff. Pros  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Cons 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Test  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1.The terminology they slow the 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Free (help)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   staff uses with parents. 2. Not enough people to provide services.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3. Therapist does not follow up   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   year to year   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  4. Dedication from pre k-12 grade   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  5. Parents don’t show confidence   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   in their child   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  My opinion on issue special education. We as teachers and therapist really need to take our jobs serious. They are children all over the world that need help.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Quality Oversight in Health Care Organizations Essay

Quality Oversight in Health Care Organizations . Quality of care and patient safety has become a driving force in the delivery of health care in the twenty-first century. Your paper should address the following: 1. Explain the role of quality oversight in health care organizations and elaborate on how non-clinical personnel contribute to the process. 2. Identify and describe three stakeholder organizations or agencies that contribute to quality oversight within health care organizations in a substantial way. Include at least one government and one non-government organization/agency that focuses on quality of care within the health care field. 3. Answer the following questions for each organization/agency: a. How does this organization/agency contribute to quality of care and patient safety? b. What specific types of oversight does this organization/agency provide? c. What are some of the repercussions that a health care organization could face for violating the standards of the organization/agency? 4. Compare and contrast the three organizations/agencies. 5. Who are some of the other stakeholders involved in promoting quality of care in health care and what role do they play? 6. Given the vast amount of mandatory regulations imposed upon the health care industry, explain why a health care organization might subject itself to participate in voluntary accreditation activities. Don’t use artificial stimulants so you can stay up and study longer. Caffeine and other stimulants can wreak havoc with your sleep schedule and your health. Since sleep time is just as important. Don’t use artificial stimulants so you can stay up and study longer. Caffeine and other stimulants can wreak havoc with your sleep schedule and your health. Since sleep time is just as important as study time, you need to be able to rest when you can. Finding the right balance between studying and sleeping is a better strategy for acing tests.